Nutrition advice
  Regulating one’s  body weight requires not only its decrease but also its increase.  By increasing one’s  weight the aim is to increase so called the active mass (muscles) to a certain extent within the bounds of the given weight category. Weight decrease is done at the expense of the lowered percent mass tissue (subcutaneous fat, fat depots) and free tissue liquids.

    The gradual weight decrease could be obtained for a longer period of time by limiting fat and carbohydrates in the food and increasing the proportion of fruit and vegetables.  Faster weight decrease is attained by introduction of the ``energy deficient diet``.  A special diet regime by which one uses up more energy than one has obtained from food, thus creating a negative energy balance.  The training practice helps regulate and reduce the body weight.  Special micro cycles are planned ( 7-10 days) – training not so much strenuous as continuous which leads to a decrease in weight.

The most commonly used means of weight decrease by sportsmen are the thermal procedures (sauna, steam bath).  Looking through different literary sources, it could be established that the somatological characteristics depend on a few factors:

Age – undulating waves in growth, development and hormonal impact that have an effect on fat tissue;

Active training exercises – under whose influence a decrease in the endomorphic component could be seen while the mesomorphic one increases.

Diet regime - a basic exogenous factor, which influence the composition of the body mass and especially the development of the subcutaneous fat tissue.

I.1.3. Eating  

Eating is the process of consuming food and by it consuming all the necessary nutrients. Food is a complex mixture of animal and green vegetation products, containing different nutritious substances. They distribute energy and plastic material; regulate all vital biochemical and physiological processes in the organism ...

 

The incoming nutrient substances from the environment are put under different chemical transformations.  On one side they are used for the renewal of the consisting parts of different tissues and organs cells, growth of the organism, increase of the organism’s mass. On the other side they are used to meet the energy demand of the body...

The chemical energy( from the nutrient products) is released and used as different types of energy: mechanical energy for muscle contractions; heat – for controlling permanent body temperature; endocrine glands secretion ; electrical energy for the work of the nervous system and so on ...

The necessary quantity and quality of food is determined by:

a)   Physiological condition of the organism

b)  The types of sports discipline, the various physical activities and work-load.

c)   The particular period of training.

d)  The different seasons.

I.1.6 Basic principles for combination of food

Unfortunately, the good combinations are only four :(

1. Protein and Fat – a natural combination which can be found in meat, fish and vegetable food such as nuts.

2. Starch and Fat – bread, potatoes, rice, cooking oil, olive oil. 

3. Fat and Acid – fish with lemon; nuts with sour fruits; cheese with tomatoes; 

4. Sugar and acids – yogurt with honey; yogurt with a sweet fruit such as bananas; sour fruit with sweet fruit

…when consumed together protein and starch impede the normal digesting process, they cause overweight and tiredness. 

It is recommended that protein to be consumed as basic food with vegetables or vegetable salad.  Starch has to be consumed as basic food with vegetables or vegetable salads as well.

It is healthier if fruit is consumed separately and on an  empty stomach!

... after fruit, it is necessary to wait for about 20 to 30 minutes before consuming any other food.  One has to wait for at least three hours after one eats cooked meal in order to eat fruit again.

Diet, generally regarding the energy intake, means regulating one’s weight.  Appropriate habit of eating and physical activities are positive factors towards regulating body weight.

The micronutrients can be in great help for better assimilation of the macronutrients. In the oarsman's menu there has to be a diverse range of fruit and vegetables full of vitamins...

.. by optimising food intake for rowers, I mean that food has to be enough to simply cover the physical needs of the body.  

Loosing weight has to be gradual not sudden. A considerable reduction of carbohydrates (up to 150g. daily).  Carbohydrates need to be acquired only by fruit and vegetables, not by industrial sugar and similar types. Sweetening is done only by saccharine and honey. Bread could be replaced either by much easily absorbed oat flakes which do not stay long in the stomach, or by reducing the quantity of bread up to 100-150g daily and most importantly eat rye bread, brown bread (those which are full of vitamins, and have less calories).

Eat food 4-5 times a day with less calories (vegetables, boiled eggs, rice and others) ...

Do not drink any liquid while eating ...

Do not starve, but never feel content after eating. Always get up from the table with the feeling that you could have a few more spoonfuls. 

It is essential to chose varied and specific (for preticulary season) food.


Excerpt of Diploma Paper

Theme: ``Optimizing food for lightweight oarsmen`

Graduate: Kostadin Todorov Kolimechkov

Sports training faculty. Faculty N: 21583  

National Sports Academy "Vasil Levski"

Sofia, Bulgaria 2004